It is difficult to overstate the importance of iteration in programming—the process performing an operation on each element of a list. I would rank only variable assignment, functions calling, and branching as more important. Unlike the if statement, which is essentially the same in every language, the semantics of the for loop varies across languages. Mainly for my own future reference, this post compares the various styles of iteration that I have come across. The examples are in pseudo code which is the only way to write so many different iteration styles under similar syntax. Each of the examples is trying to do the same thing: print out each element of a list called list.

There are several features that I am looking for. Most techniques are missing one or more of these.

  1. Type safety. There is no way to get an exception in code that passes a static type checker.
  2. Immutability. Both using and creating iterators should be possible without resorting to mutable state.
  3. Generality. Arbitrary elements can be considered
  4. Utility. Arbitrary collections can be iterated
  5. Controlability. Arbitrary things can be done with the elements


This is an ancient form of iteration. It is also closest to the metal—that is, how computers actually do this sort of thing. Each iteration requires one comparison and one increment. Getting the next element and then checking to see if it is valid will be a recurring theme of iteration.

Its simplicity is really the only thing going for it. It has more boilerplate than a steam locomotive. And it is easy to get wrong in a way that will pass the type checker. For example, don’t mix up  i < list.count  and  i <= list.count! It depends on whether or not your language is 0-indexed or 1-indexed. You also cannot iterate over anything whose size is not (cheaply) known beforehand. For example, you cannot iterator over the lines of a file this way.

This method succeeds on #3 Generality, but fails on all other counts. It is the only method mentioned here that fails on #4 Utility.

Throwing Iterators

This is the first of many styles that use the syntax for (element in list). Here, list can any object that implements the Iterable interface. The Iterable interface has a single method iterator, which returns an instance of Iterator, a mutable object with a method next. What next does exactly is the difference between throwing, sentinel, option, and peeking iterators. In every case, the for loop calls next repeatedly, getting a different element of the list in turn, until the iterator is exhausted and something special happens.

Once there are no elements left in a throwing iterator, the next call to next throws a StopIteration exception. The for loop catches this exception and exits the iteration.

From a purity standpoint, it is rather unsanitary to be using exceptions to handle something that is not only unexceptional, but a mandatory consequence of iteration. Python uses this technique and recently had to change some things because of the fact that exceptions can be throw anywhere, which leads to weird behavior like loops quietly terminating when an errant exception is thrown. This also seems like it would be the most difficult to optimize because exceptions interrupt the normal flow of the program.

This style succeeds on #3 Generality, #4 Utility, and #5 Controlability. It fails on #1 Type-safety and #2 Immutability.

Peeking Iterators

A peeking iterator also throws an exception when next is called, but that is not how one is supposed to use a peeking iterator. It has a second method has_next, which returns true if next will return an element and false if the iterator is exhausted.

One disadvantage is that the implementation of all iterators requires an extra function whose only purpose is to avoid running into undefined behavior when the iterator runs out. If the next value is generated on the fly, it may be necessary to compute the value of next, without calling next of course, because that would increment the iterator and throw the value away. If the computation of next is expensive, it will be necessary to store that value after computing has_next in anticipation of the subsequent call to next.

This style succeeds in #3 Generality, #4 Utility, and #5 Controlability. After the indexing iterator, this is the worst violator of #1 type-safety. Naturally, it does not follow #2 Immutability.

Sentinel Iterators

Rather than throw an exception when no more elements are found, a sentinel iterator returns a special value (often called null). Every for loop tests if the returned value is the sentinel value and aborts before running the next iteration if that is true. If the collection has elements of type Element, then the return type of is the union type Element|Null.

The disadvantage of this approach is that now collections cannot contain arbitrary objects, making it the only style that fails on #3 Generality. In particular, a collection cannot contain the sentinel value. Otherwise, when an iterator returns that element of the collection, it will think that the collection has been exhausted. Ceylon uses this method, which means that {true, finished, null}.size  returns 1 because finished is the sentinel value.

This style succeeds on all points except #3 Generality and #2 Immutability.

Option Iterators

A slight variation of the sentinel iterator is to box the response with a type that makes it possible to distinguish between the iterator being finished and the iterator happening to have a sentinel value in the list. This wrapper class is an abstract class called Option with two concrete classes, Some and None. An iterator returns Some(element) until it is exhausted and then it returns None. In this case, None is the sentinel value that causes termination of the iterations, but if the list has a None in it, it returns Some(None) which can be distinguished from plain None.

This style succeeds on all points except #2 Immutability.

List Iterators

The throwing, peeking, sentinel, and option iterators all require mutable iterators—each call to next causes the iterator object to be different upon the next call. Mutable state is mildly harmful to sane programming. Fortunately, most users only encounter iterators via the for loop, which safely hides all the mutability. The writers of generators still need to deal with mutability, however. Mutability can be completely avoided by having the iterator not only return the next value but the next iterator also. Here, there are two types of iterators Full and Empty. The Full instance has a head method that returns the next element of the iteration, but the iterator is also immutable so it returns the same value every time. The Full iterator has a second method tail, which returns a fresh iterator. That tail is also immutable, and it also is either Full or Empty. If it is Empty, the iteration terminates, but if it is Full, the iteration continues with a call to its head.

This is my favorite iterator. There is no required mutability either for creators of iterators or users of iterators. There are no weird sentinel values. There are no required exceptions and no exceptions for anything that type-checks. There is a performance issue here. Rather than just returning one element per iteration, the iteration process needs to create one new iterator object per iteration. This should be easy to optimize away as the old iterator of exactly the same type is immediately discarded. You can also safely reuse the iterator as many times as necessary, even starting in the middle using one of the intermediate immutable tails.

The one situation where this style could be a burden is when one needs an iterator that can only be iterated once and which permanently discards the elements it has produced. I only say this because Scala must have the TraversableOnce trait for a reason, though I have never uncovered it.

This style is the only one that succeeds on all points.

Internal Iterators

An internal iterator is just a method, often called foreach, that accepts a function as its only argument which is then applied to each element of the collection. It moves the control of the iteration from the caller to the callee. As a consequence, the ability to break, continue, or otherwise alter the normal iteration is lost. In Scala, even the for loops are sugar for internal iterators, and thus lack break or continue.

Internal iterators can coexist with an external ones. Robert Nystrom has a blog series about why certain problems are harder or easier to solve external vs internal iterators. The subsequent posts talk about ways to get the benefits of one in the other and more about sentinel iterators, his favorite. It is a good series for those interested in learning even more about iterators.

This is the only the style that fails #5 Controlability, but it succeeds on all other counts.